Marquette General Brain and Spine Center
Radiology Special Procedures -
- A study of all arteries, excluding the heart, by injection of
contrast media placed directly into the artery with a catheter.
Includes: cerebral (carotids & vertebrals), aorta (arch, thoracic,
abdominal), renals, hepatic, splenic, mesenteric (SMA, IMA, celiac),
arms and legs.
Arthrogram – The study of a joint space by injection of contrast
media directly into the joint space.
Biopsy – Is performed on almost any area of the body. A sampling
of cells is obtained with a hollow needle directed through the skin
under CT, Ultrasound or Fluoroscopy guidance to help establish a
CO2 angiography – Visualization of the blood vessels (primarily
the abdominal aorta), using carbon dioxide, when there is a contraindication
to the use of iodinated contrast media.
Cyst Aspiration – Removal of fluid or cells from a fluid filled
cavity for a diagnosis.
Fistulogram/Shuntogram – The study of a hemodialysis access
to evaluate patency, by injecting contrast through a catheter placed
directly into the fistula/shunt.
Myelogram – Injection of contrast media directly into the
cerebrospinal fluid space to evaluate for ruptured discs, spinal
cord abnormalities and other injuries or diseases of the spinal
Percutaneous Transhepatic Choleangiogram (PTC) – The study
of the biliary tree by injection of contrast through the skin and
directly into a bile duct. Used to diagnose the cause of biliary
Pulmonary angiography – The study of the pulmonary arteries
and to diagnose pulmonary emboli.
Renal Vein Renins – Sampling of blood is obtained from the
veins around the kidney for the diagnosis of renal hypertension.
Spinal Puncture – Direct puncture into to the cerebrospinal
fluid space, to obtain spinal fluid for laboratory analysis to assist
in diagnosis of conditions related to the spine and nervous system.
Stereotactic & Ultrasound Guided Breast Core Biopsy –
Cores of tissue are taken from the breast for diagnosis of malignancy
and other conditions. An alternative to surgical excisional biopsy.
Venogram (Includes: arms, legs, inferior and superior venacava)
– A study of the veins by direct injection of contrast media
into the vein. Assists with the diagnosis of clots, blockages, malformations
and for obtaining pre surgical pictures of venous flow and anatomy.
Interventional/Therapeutic Special Procedures
Aortic Stent Graft - (Performed in the Operating Room by an Interventional
Radiologist) – Placement of a graft in the area of an abdominal
aortic aneurysm through a percutaneous catheter instead of surgical
Blood Patch - 10-20cc of the patient’s blood is placed into
the epidural space over the previous spinal puncture site, to relieve
post myelogram/spinal puncture headache related to suspected cerebrospinal
Biliary Stone Retrieval – Retrieval of residual stones following
gallbladder surgery. Performed via percutaneous approach into the
biliary system with special basket catheters.
Embolization - (Cerebral, renal, nasal, mesenteric) – Introduction
of a substance (gelfoam, coils or particles) into a vessel to occlude
it and prevent further bleeding.
Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) – Injection of a steroid
and lidocaine into the epidural space of the spine, to help relieve
chronic back pain.
Foreign Body Retrieval – The retrieval of foreign bodies (catheter
fragments, coins) accidentally lodged within the body, by use of
special snaring catheters and devices.
GDC Coiling – Introduction of coils into a cerebral aneurysm
to seal off the aneurysm and as an alternate to surgical clipping
IVC Filter – Placement of a filter into the inferior vena
cava to “catch” emboli and prevent them from traveling
to the lungs.
Joint Injections - Injection of lidocaine and/or a steroid into
a joint space for temporary relief of pain and inflammation.
PICC (Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter) – Placement
of a catheter into the central circulation from a puncture site
in the arm, to deliver long-term intravenous medications/fluids.
Percutaneous Drainage Catheter Placement (nephrostomy, biliary,
abscess) – Placement of a temporary or permanent catheter
into a cavity to drain a fluid collection.
Percutaneous Feeding Tube Placement – Placement of a feeding
tube through the skin and directly into the stomach or jejunum for
liquid feedings in adults and children, that are not able to eat.
Permcath – A double lumen tunneled catheter that is placed
through a vein in the neck and used for hemodialysis.
Pseudoaneurysm Repair – Repair of a groin pseudoaneurysm with
the use of thrombin and ultrasound guidance.
PTA - (Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty) – Direct repair
of a stenotic lesion in a blood vessel with the use of balloon catheters.
Stents (Carotid, Iliac, Femoral, Renal, Fistula, Biliary) –
A mesh like device that is placed into a stenotic area of a blood
vessel or duct to keep it open and flowing.
TIPS (Transjugular Intraheptic Portocaval Shunt) – An artificial
passage made from the hepatic venous system into the general circulation
to relieve hepatic congestion in patients with cirrhosis.
Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) – Placement of particles
into the uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine
fibroids. An alternative to surgical treatment.
Vascular Access Devices (Groshong, Ports, Quinton) – Catheters
that are placed into blood vessels either by direct, subcutaneous
or tunneled approach for the purpose of short or long term IV therapy.
Vascular Infusions (Pitressin,Thrombolytics, Papaverine, Chemotherapy,)
– Direct placement of arterial or venous catheters for continuous
or temporary infusion of drugs that stop bleeding, dissolve clots,
relieve spasm or to administer chemotherapy.
Vertebroplasty – Non-surgical treatment of painful vertebral
compression fractures. The diseased/fractured vertebrae are filled
with a sterile cement to help stabilize the area and relieve pain.